Subsurface ice as a microbial habitat

first_imgWe determine the physicochemical habitat for microorganisms in subsurface terrestrialice by quantitatively constraining the partitioning of bacteria and fluorescent beads(1–10 m) between the solid ice crystals and the water-filled veins and boundaries aroundindividual ice crystals. We demonstrate experimentally that the partitioning of sphericalparticles within subsurface ice depends strongly on size but is largely independent ofsource particle concentration. Although bacteria are shown consistently to partition to theveins, larger particles, which would include eukaryotic cells, become trapped in the crystalswith little potential for continued metabolism. We also calculate the expected concentrationsof soluble impurities in the veins for typical bulk concentrations found in naturalice. These calculations and scanning electron microscope observations demonstrate a concentratedchemical environment (3.5 M total ions at 10 C) in the veins, where bacteriawere found to reside, with a mixture of impurities that could sustain metabolism. Ourcalculations show that typical bacterial cells in glacial ice would fit within the narrowveins, which are a few micrometers across. These calculations are confirmed by microscopicimages of spherical, 1.9-m-diameter, fluorescent beads and stained bacteria insubsurface veins. Typical bacterial concentrations in clean ice (102–103 cells/mL) wouldresult in concentrations of 106–108 cells/mL of vein fluid, but occupy only a small fractionof the total available vein volume (0.2%). Hence, bacterial populations are not limitedby vein volume, with the bulk of the vein being unoccupied and available to supply energysources and nutrients.last_img read more

Our love and respect for the United States of America and…

first_imgTo the Editor:First and foremost I must state that I am extremely proud to be an American and cherish all of the ideas and ideals of this great country.I respect all of our people within the City of Bayonne, County of Hudson, State of New Jersey and our great country as a whole. My background is that of descent from the country of Spain and of Puerto Rico and I have resided in our country since the age of five. Our family is built on hard work and the desire to move forward as are many people from the many backgrounds. I am so grateful that I was able to attend college and earn my degree and I started off as an elementary school teacher. I moved into law enforcement and retired as a Captain in the New Jersey State Police and subsequently was elected by the people of Hudson County to serve as the Sheriff. Currently I have been elected by the fine people of the City of Bayonne to serve as Councilmember At Large. I relate this background to you as an example of what a kid coming from another country can accomplish and I state that many people before me have accomplished their worth and many after me will continue in these goals and aspirations.It is moving, it is right and just to be able to assist all in this great melting pot to move forward and encourage that, in doing so display a genuine respect for the laws of the land that have helped make this country so fine. It is so desirable in this area to witness people attempting to accomplish their dreams in a law-abiding manner with dignity and distinction.And so, if we move in this direction we must remember this adage, “it is not just about being right, it is about doing right” in our lives and in the lives of our children and many generations to come.God Bless America, God Bless the State of New Jersey, the County of Hudson and the fine City of Bayonne and all of its’ people. JUAN M. PEREZCouncilmember At Large, City of Bayonnelast_img read more

Ocean City Mayoral Candidate John Flood Reveals His Plans

first_imgMayoral candidate John Flood and his wife, Cathy, stand next to a campaign sign in front of their home on Arkansas Avenue. All ordinances must be opened up for public comment prior to being introduced on first reading, and we need to use technology to receive public comments. Ocean City is a community that at times is physically separated from some residents and second homeowners. We are extremely fortunate to have a large group of people that care a lot about the town. They also represent a vast wealth of knowledge and different perspectives that can be harnessed – if they are just asked. I will use technology to try to harness it. Ordinances should be posted on the city’s website at least two weeks prior to first reading. Explanation and supporting data should be included. The first ordinance to go through this process for Council’s consideration will be to take advantage of the state law allowing municipalities to reduce the distance you can park from a stop sign from 50 feet to 25 feet. My parking proposal would create more than 750 new parking spaces and would help with the parking shortage that is particularly acute during the busy summer tourism season. By Donald WittkowskiMayoral candidate John Flood discusses what he plans to do in his first few days in office if he wins the May 8 municipal election.He also lays out his proposal for creating more parking spaces in town in this article, the second in a series of stories published in leading up to the election.In addition, he is raising concerns about the tax and financial implications of the city’s proposed five-year, $100 million capital plan on property owners. He also wants to take a second look at the proposed $17.5 million police administration building, one of the high-profile projects in the capital plan.His comments follow in this question-and-answer format.Please describe what you plan to do in your first days of office.On my first day in office, there will be no noticeable changes to the public. It will be the middle of summer and everything that is scheduled will continue as planned. Also, I would like to ensure all of the employees of the city that if they like their job and want to continue to work hard for the city, they have nothing to worry about. I don’t care who hired them or who they supported publicly. The only thing that matters is that we all serve the community to the highest level possible.I would issue the following policies/planning guidelines:All road and drainage projects and other projects that are under contract will continue as planned. All other projects that have not gone out to bid will be re-evaluated and, if needed, broken down into more manageable parts that can be completed during an off-season. If the total project cannot be completed within an off-season, there needs to be a plan to restore the road to useable condition no later than May 1. Like the Boardwalk replacement, the city did no more than could be completed between the fall Block Party and Palm Sunday. No road should be opened up, excluding emergencies, without a plan to restore the road. Residents need to know there is an end date. All other projects will begin the process of “concept, design, fund and implement.”center_img Behind the scenes, we will begin to evaluate our capital financing on how to best deal with the $128 million of permanent financing to be issued in 2019 and 2020 and how best to manage it.John Flood wants to take a second look at the city’s capital plan, its debt and the impacts on the local tax rate.As one example of your concerns about the overall pace and financial implications of the capital plan, what project might that be and how would you address it?One of the larger and most visible projects that hasn’t moved forward is the police administration building. They’ve had several studies; they haven’t nailed down a location. I think my program that I’ve done before at the library with “concept, design, fund and implement” is ripe for this project. We need to do a needs-assessment – find out exactly how the building is used and how the people there use it. We need to investigate, not just that, but what are the trends in police activity.What do you see as the biggest issue facing Ocean City both in the short term and the long term?Right now, everybody’s happy because they see all this work being done. And all of this work being done is being touted by the mayor as his accomplishment. But what he’s failing to tell you is that in the next two years, the town is scheduled to go out for $128 million in new debt, which will have to be repaid at a higher interest, and we’re going to begin to pay back the principal.The capital projects and the capital spending are a big issue in my mind. The infrastructure has long exceeded its useful life. It needs to be replaced. But we’re doing too much, too fast and a lot of it isn’t being done responsibly. We can’t stop, but I believe we need to re-evaluate and slow the pace of some of the projects, both to get them done correctly and at the best cost. The plan of how much work and to pay for it is as important as the physical plans for the projects.I don’t see how, in some way, it’s not going to lead to a larger tax increase. Almost 50 percent of our current debt for all the work that’s being done lately is put on the credit card. It’s being charged, and we’re paying interest only. But that bill’s going to come due in the next couple of years. Whether I’m the mayor or Mayor Gillian’s the mayor, or anybody else, that bill is coming due. The mayor’s failed to talk about that reality.last_img read more

Press release: Report 12/2018: Collision at Frognal Farm User Worked Crossing

first_img The sole purpose of RAIB investigations is to prevent future accidents and incidents and improve railway safety. RAIB does not establish blame, liability or carry out prosecutions. RAIB operates, as far as possible, in an open and transparent manner. While our investigations are completely independent of the railway industry, we do maintain close liaison with railway companies and if we discover matters that may affect the safety of the railway, we make sure that information about them is circulated to the right people as soon as possible, and certainly long before publication of our final report. For media enquiries, please call 01932 440015. PDF, 5.49MB, 47 pages R122018_180823_Frognal_Farm SummaryOn 23 October 2017, a passenger train collided with a parcel delivery van at Frognal Farm user worked level crossing, near Teynham, in Kent. The train was travelling at 89 mph (143 km/h). It did not derail, and no-one on the train was hurt, but the train was damaged by the impact. The van was severely damaged and the van driver suffered serious injuries.The van driver was delivering a parcel to a property on the far side of the crossing. He initially went to an incorrect address, where he was given directions which involved going over the crossing to reach the correct address. The level crossing was equipped with power-operated gates, controlled by a button at the side of the approach road, and a telephone which vehicle drivers were required to use to contact the signaller to obtain permission to cross. Being unfamiliar with user worked crossings, the van driver did not notice the telephone and pressed the button to operate the gates. They opened, and so he returned to his van to drive across the crossing, believing it was safe to cross.There were multiple signs associated with the crossing which were placed in a way that meant they did not stand out to the van driver. The van driver had been told that he needed to press a green button to open the gates at the crossing, and he was focused on locating this button. The fact that the gate opened when the button was pressed, coupled with the van driver’s previous experience of other types of level crossing, may have reinforced his view that it was safe to cross.The RAIB has found that an underlying cause of the accident was that the system where authorised users are responsible for briefing visitors about the safe way to use private crossings, is unreasonable in present-day circumstances.RecommendationsThe RAIB has made four recommendations, the first directed to Network Rail, the Department for Transport and the Office of Rail and Road to improve the signage at private crossings and review the concept of authorised users. The second is directed to the Department for Transport and the Office of Rail and Road to change the law covering the signage at private crossings. The third is to Network Rail, to improve the safety of private crossings equipped with power operated gate opening equipment. The last is also directed to Network Rail, to review the way in which it collects and maintains data about regular users of private crossings, so that it can better communicate important information about crossing safety.Simon French, Chief Inspector of Rail Accidents said:“This accident, which came very close to killing a motorist, has shown up some significant weaknesses in the way that some level crossings have been managed over many years. User worked level crossings, where the user is responsible for operating gates themselves, are usually on rural, private roads. They are a legacy of agreements between railway companies and landowners, made at the time the railways were built in the nineteenth century. Today’s trains are more frequent and travel faster than the Victorian railway builders could ever dream of, and the risk to crossing users and people on trains at these level crossings is now one of the most significant that the railway has to manage.“This type of crossing differs from public road crossings that many motorists are familiar with, in that the user is responsible for protecting themselves from being hit by a train while they cross. This is a concept which needs to be made very clear to the user, as the consequences of failing to understand it may be tragic. In this case, a green button labelled “press to operate crossing gates” created a belief that the gates would only open if it was safe. That was not the case, and the driver of the road vehicle was lucky to escape with his life. The signs that told him to telephone for permission before using the crossing were confusing and badly positioned. They included an unauthorised adaptation of a legally specified sign. This non-standard sign was created because the law has not kept up with technical developments, and there is no sign approved for use in connection with power operated gates. Fresh thinking is needed on how to tell an unfamiliar user what kind of crossing they have arrived at, what the hazards are, and what to do to be safe.“The nineteenth-century approach to managing the use of private level crossings revolved round the concept of the authorised user, the person occupying the land or premises that the crossing gave access to. They were considered to be responsible for making sure that anyone who had a valid reason to visit them and needed to use the crossing was aware of how to cross safely. It’s doubtful whether this concept was ever really effective, and in today’s world of parcel deliveries by multiple couriers it just doesn’t work. We are recommending that, when reviewing the way it manages these crossings, Network Rail looks hard at how crossing users get information from the railway about how to cross safely.“However, I believe that the vital lesson from this investigation is how important it is that each user worked crossing is managed in a way that takes into account the context in which it is used, and the needs and expectations of the people who may encounter it in the course of their everyday business. It is time for a fresh approach to this problem, for the sake of crossing users, train passengers and railway staff, who are all at risk.”Notes to editors If you use assistive technology (such as a screen reader) and need aversion of this document in a more accessible format, please email [email protected] tell us what format you need. It will help us if you say what assistive technology you use.center_img Request an accessible format. This file may not be suitable for users of assistive technology. Newsdate: 23 August 2018last_img read more

Heathers Will Shutter Off-Broadway

first_img View Comments Heathers: The Musical Directed by Andy Fickman and featuring music, lyrics and a book by Laurence O’Keefe and Kevin Murphy, Heathers brings the 1988 cult classic film to the stage. Westerberg High is terrorized by a shoulder-padded, scrunchie-wearing junta: Heather, Heather and Heather, the hottest and cruelest girls in all of Ohio. But outsider Veronica Sawyer rejects their evil regime for a new boyfriend, the dark sexy stranger J.D., who plans to put the Heathers in their place—six feet under. Show Closed This production ended its run on Aug. 4, 2014 Related Shows The current cast of Heathers also includes Cait Fairbanks, Katie Ladner, Jon Eidson, Evan Todd, Tony winner Anthony Crivello, Dan Cooney, Michelle Duffy, Dan Domenech, Rachel Flynn, Molly Hager, AJ Meijer, Matthew Schatz and Dustin Sullivan. You’ve not got long to take in the pâté and slushies on offer at New World Stages. After some recent backstage drama, Heathers, the off-Broadway musical based on the 1988 classic cult film, will shutter on August 4. At time of closing, the tuner will have played 17 previews and 145 regular performances. The show currently stars Charissa Hogeland as Veronica, Dave Thomas Brown as J.D. and Elle McLemore, Jessica Keenan Wynn and Kristolyn Lloyd as the Heathers.last_img read more

National Cycling Center Breaks Ground

first_img“It’s best just to commit,” says cyclist Kim Deacon, discussing the art of riding the high-banked walls of velodromes. “You look up at the banked walls and you think there’s no way you’re going to be able to ride that thing. You crank it up and you hang on to the side of the track just by centrifugal force. It’s amazing.”Velodromes are cycling tracks with 42-degree banked walls. They’re popular in Europe, but almost non-existent in the Southeast. That’s about to change.Construction begins this month on the U.S. Cycling Center in Rock Hill, S.C., which will host world-class facilities for five different cycling disciplines on a 1,000-acre site situated on the edge of the Catawba River. The center will offer seven miles of singletrack, a permanent cyclocross track, a 1.5-mile paved criterium course, a BMX Supercross track, and a 250-meter concrete velodrome.“There’s nothing else like this in the country,” says Spencer Leudner, the co-founder of Cycling Center Partners, a citizen-based group supporting the project.The city council of Rock Hill, located thirty minutes south of Charlotte, N.C., recently voted to move forward with the $5 million project using bonds from the recovery package, which they’ll pay back over several years through hospitality taxes. Rock Hill council members are convinced that a comprehensive cycling center will attract two-wheelers and their wallets.According to current plans, the National Cycling Center will be the heart of a comprehensive housing and retail development on the riverside site. The proposed village and park will also include boat launches on the Catawba River, a piece of the growing Carolina Thread Trail, and a climbing wall.See more pictures of what the cycling center will look like here.last_img read more

Embraer-Boeing Agreement to Build KC-390 Military Transport Plane

first_img Brazilian airplane manufacturer Embraer and its U.S. competitor Boeing agreed on June 26 to share technical knowledge and market analysis for the development of Embraer’s KC-390 military transport plane. Embraer hopes to capitalize on Boeing’s vast knowledge of the world military transportation market, including its experience in the development of the Boeing C-17, said Luiz Carlos Aguiar, president of Embraer’s defense and security unit, after signing the agreement with his counterpart from Boeing. “Boeing has extensive experience in military transport and in-flight refueling aircraft, as well as profound knowledge of the potential markets for the KC-390,” Aguiar added at a press conference. Defense, Space and Security president Dennis Muilenburg, said that the C-17, a large military transport aircraft used by the air forces of several countries, and the KC-390 “fit together perfectly.” “Our goal is to look for new opportunities to expand the market for the KC-390 and make it as successful worldwide as the C-17 has been,” he added. The collaboration between two of the world’s leading airplane manufacturers consists in sharing technical information and joint analysis of market prospects for the KC-390. “It will be a partnership between equals that does not involve payment, with both sides contributing resources,” Aguiar said. The agreement follows the commitment signed by both companies in April to share technology in the areas of aircraft efficiency and manufacturing, as well as for more research on biofuels. Boeing and Embraer are currently collaborating on the development of aviation biofuels, including one derived from sugarcane. In April 2009, Embraer obtained a contract with the Brazilian Air Force to deliver 23 KC-390 planes over seven years for 1.3 billion dollars. The new KC-390 with two turbofan engines, which can be refueled in flight and will be used to supply fuel to other aircraft in flight, as well as for search-and-rescue missions, is expected to make its first flight in 2014, and enter service in late 2015. The plane is the largest model to be built by the Brazilian aerospace industry. It can carry 84 military personnel and the cargo cabin can be adapted to carry sick or injured patients on medical evacuation missions. Brazil, the Latin American country with the greatest political and economic weight and currently the sixth-largest economy in the world, will soon make a decision on a contract for 36 fighter planes for its Air Force, valued at 4 to 7 billion dollars. Boeing’s F/A-18 Super Hornet fighters are competing for the contract against the Rafale fighters manufactured by French firm Dassault and the Gripens manufactured by Swedish firm Saab. Brazil seeks to promote its domestic arms industry and insists on technology transfer in all its defense agreements. Washington D.C., meanwhile, has announced that it will reopen bidding for 20 AT-29 Super Tucano planes destined for the Afghan Armed Forces. Embraer and its U.S. partner Sierra Nevada won that bid in December, but the U.S. Air Force canceled the agreement in February, following protests by their U.S. rival Hawker Beechcraft Corp. Boeing has had a presence in Brazil for 80 years and has sold commercial planes to Brazilian airlines since the 1960s. By Dialogo June 29, 2012last_img read more

Voter id card the main concern at peaceful protest

first_img Share 42 Views   no discussions Sharing is caring! Tweet Sharecenter_img Share LocalNewsPolitics Voter id card the main concern at peaceful protest by: – June 29, 2011 Several supporters of the United Workers Party converged outside of the Dominica Water & Sewage Company Limited to protest against what they refer to as an illegal Prime Minister and government.The Leader of the United Workers Party Mr. Ron Green announced at a meeting in the St. Joseph Constituency on Monday evening that they would boycott this session of the Parliament where the budget for the financial year 2011/ 2012 would be presented and stage a peaceful protest.The purpose of this protest was to stand against the decision not to implement voter identifcation cards in Dominica as the United Workers Party members are of the view that this would help reduce the inflated voter list.Many of the supporters at this morning’s protest were seen with placards while others chanted “voters id cards now” with whistles.[album id= 41 template =extend][vimeo][/vimeo][vimeo][/vimeo]Dominica Vibes Newslast_img read more

Sr. Mary Stella Gampfer O.S.F.

first_imgSr. Mary Stella Gampfer, age 81 of the Srs. of St. Francis in Oldenburg, died Friday, April 12, 2019 at the convent.  Born February 25, 1938 in Covington, Kentucky, she is the daughter of Rose (Nee: Goeke) and Charles Gampfer.The second of three children of Charles and Rose, the family moved across the river to Cincinnati when she was young.  She attended St. Bernard School at Winton Place where she became acquainted with the Oldenburg Franciscans and began her interest in religious life.The family would move to the suburb of Norwood and where she met the Srs. of the Precious Blood order, but kept in contact with the Franciscans she met in grade school.  The family’s parish was served by Franciscan Friars so her interest in the Franciscans continued to grow.  Following graduation, she entered the convent, which was delayed by her mother being ill.  Her mother died the following year.  Her father would eventually remarry and two more sons were added to the Gampfer family.Sr. Mary Stella earned a Bachelor’s degree from Marian University and a Master’s degree in English from the University of Notre Dame.  In her early years she taught at schools in Evansville and Oldenburg Indiana as well as Cincinnati and Middletown in Ohio.  She also held the position of Directress of the Aspirancy at the Motherhouse for four years, along with instructing Novices and Postulants in English and history.  In 1974, Sr. Mary Stella became an instructor of English at Marian University in Indianapolis and was made Assistant Professor of the English Department in 1979.  She would hold that position until her retirement in 2015.  Other duties included teaching writing and literature courses, overseeing the university’s Fioretti (a student led literary and visual arts journal released yearly) as well as coordinating the annual Student Recognition Dinner and Awards Program.Sr. Mary Stella is survived by brothers David, Joseph and Terrance Gampfer, all of Ohio.  In addition to her parents, she is also preceded in death by her brother Charles Gampfer.  Visitation is Tuesday, April 16th, from 1 – 3 p.m. at the convent chapel.  Funeral services follow at 3 p.m. with Rev. Leopold Keffler O.F.M. officiating and burial in the convent cemetery.  Memorials may be made to the Srs. of St. Francis, P.O. Box 100, Oldenburg, Indiana, 47036 (  For online condolences go to read more

AG Curtis Hill says Indiana State Egg Board lacks authority to regulate online ‘farmers markets’ as retailers

first_imgStatewide—The Indiana State Egg Board has no authority to regulate as retailers third-party websites that facilitate transactions between buyers and sellers of eggs, according to Attorney General Curtis Hill in an advisory opinion issued recently.Attorney General Hill issued the opinion following an inquiry from the Indiana State Egg Board regarding an online business called Market Wagon that enables customers to connect with local agricultural producers.Although Market Wagon maintains physical warehouses, all transactions for eggs between vendors and customers occur online, and Market Wagon itself never assumes ownership of the eggs. After a vendor fulfills the customer’s order, the vendor brings the order, sealed and labeled, to Market Wagon’s warehouse. The vendor then places the order in a customer’s designated tote for customer pick-up or delivery.State law requires a permit to sell eggs at a farmers market, Attorney General Hill noted, but the law’s concept of a farmers market does not include the online platform currently offered by Market Wagon.“The board’s statutory and regulatory provisions were not designed to address e-commerce,” Attorney General Hill said. “For the board to regulate in this area, there would likely need to be legislative changes to extend the board’s authority.”Courts have held that websites that offer online marketplaces, such as Amazon and eBay, are not sellers of the products. The fact that a business such as Market Wagon collects money from the customer at the time of purchase does not make it a seller, Attorney General Hill said, because its share of the money is collected as a fee for providing access to its online marketplace rather than for the eggs themselves.The Indiana State Egg Board does retain regulatory oversight over the egg vendors who use Market Wagon’s services, Attorney General Hill said.last_img read more